anesthesia machine check mnemonic

Introduction. Checking Anaesthetic Equipment Guideline. Drips: Turn off the inotropes etc. That means a check of the anesthesia machine, monitors, ventilator, and cart. ... A Useful Mnemonic For Pre-Anesthetic Assessment. This video is about Anesthesia Machine Checks. How gases are removed from OR. Anesthesia Problem Solving Problem Solution No O2 through flowmeter Check O2 cylinder Check all high pressure hose are connections Machine fails pressure test Check that the pop-off valve is shut Check tightness of absorber canister connections Check rebreathing bag and circuit hoses Check that vaporiser fill/drain port is closed Many students find the anesthesia equipment intimidating at first, and unfamiliarity with monitors and gauges can leave you feeling unsettled. In performing a machine check, one should use a written check list in order to ensure that nothing is overlooked. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Incorporation of safety features in anesthesia machines and ensuring that a proper check of the machine is performed before use on a patient ensures patient safety. !,” “Check APL Valve!! Although the MSMAID acronym was designed as a pre-op checklist for the anesthesia provider, it is helpful for us medics when we need to decide what gear to bring with us and as a method to brief our non-medical help when we need to sedate someone. M stands for MACHINE and MONITORS. Are the gauges and monitors working? M stands for MACHINE and MONITORS. 5. The pressure in a full oxygen or air cylinder at 20°C is 137 bar. At the start of residency, I ran through the mnemonic in my head with every setup to ensure that I didn’t forget anything. “MS MAID” was the simple, commonly used mnemonic applied: M-Machine check (on/off switch, oxygen (O 2), nitrous oxide (N 2O), sevoflurane, and desflurane levels, filling apparatus with anesthetic, pop-off valve pressure check, and circuitry maintenance). The following monitors should always be available: Can be remembered with the mnemonic MSMAID. Anesthesia machines, paired with breathing circuits (nonrebreathing circuit [NRC] or rebreathing circuit [RC]), are designed to deliver oxygen (O 2) and inhalant anesthetic to the patient and to prevent rebreathing of carbon dioxide (CO 2) by the patient. MSMAIDS stands for m achine, s … If this is your first visit, be sure to check out the FAQ by clicking the link above. Avoid killing patient by using it. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Turn on anesthesia machine and monitors. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want! Confirm Low O 2 Alarm Function and Low Limit (30%) 8. This mnemonic was the outline for the video. 2008:942) give a second test. This site uses cookies to provide, maintain and improve your experience. 37.187.152.127 You arrive at the operating room only minutes before the patient is scheduled to arrive. ( Log Out /  ... A Useful Mnemonic For Pre-Anesthetic Assessment. I recommend you use the mnemonic M-A-I-D-S as a checklist to prepare yourself and your equipment. We utilized the widely accepted mnemonic, MS. MAIDS, which stands for Machine, Suction, Monitors, Airways, Intravenous Lines, Drugs and Safety. Timed Access to all of AccessAnesthesiology. Change ). The gases we use come from pipelines, but we also check the oxygen, air and nitrous tanks to ensure they’re filled in case of an emergency. Anesthesia machine/room check MS MAID: Monitors (EKG, SpO2, EtCO2, etc.) The anesthesia machine should be checked every day and rechecked in between cases if different anesthesia equipment is used or if the anesthesia operator changes. + + ... A high-pressure system check should be performed with the oxygen cylinder supply and the central supply; ... Can be remembered with the mnemonic MSMAID. All anesthesia machines have failsafe valves which shut off or decrease gas flows when the O2 pressure drops below 30 PSI, although this system will not prevent the delivery of 100% N2O (thus an oxygen analyzer is necessary). Terms of Use Failure to check equipment clearly results in an increased risk of operative morbidity and mortality. Many anesthesia-related adverse incidents involve the failure of anesthesia equipment and could potentially be prevented by proper checkout of the ane… The following monitors should be available for every anesthetic procedure: Additional monitors depending on surgery type and patient history may include: The anesthesia machine should be checked every day and rechecked in between cases if different anesthesia equipment is used or if the anesthesia operator changes. Both air and oxygen are stored as compressed gasses, and therefore the volume … The anesthesia machine should be checked every day and rechecked in between cases if different anesthesia equipment is used or if the anesthesia operator changes. Check List for Going on Bypass: HAD2SUE Remember this mnemonic. Morgan & Mikhail's Clinical Anesthesiology, Invasive arterial blood pressure monitoring, Backup gas cylinders and Ambu-type bag valve mask device should be available in the room, Turn on the machine master switch and all monitors, A high-pressure system check should be performed with the oxygen cylinder supply and the central supply, A low-pressure system leak test should be performed (tests for leaks from flow control valves to common gas outlet), Check manual ventilation and ventilator bellows, Ensure APL valve is in the open position and ventilator is set to “manual” prior to patient’s arrival in OR, Ensure that the MH box or cart is available and stocked, Ensure defibrillator is in functioning condition and readily available, If using local anesthetics, ensure lipid rescue is available and ready for use, Ensure rapid transfuser is available and stocked for use if needed, Ensure suction is available and attached to appropriate length of tubing to reach patient’s head, Ensure that monitors as indicated above are available, calibrated, and ready to be used, All monitors should be of the appropriate size for the patient including blood pressure cuff size, arterial and central catheter sizes, Ensure that disposable monitors are attached and ready to be used for the next patient such as EKG leads, pulse oximeter, and, in some cases, BP cuff, A nerve stimulator should be readily available and functioning, Fluid warmers and patient warming blankets and devices should also be readily available and functioning. appropriately sized ambu bag) Check function of auxillary oxygen Gas cylinder and pipeline supplies: Eds. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over. The gases we use come from pipelines, but we also check the oxygen, air and nitrous tanks to ensure they’re filled in case of an emergency. Check out your anesthesia machine first. Are the backup systems in place? Excessive anesthetic depth Aug 2, 2015 - Explore Courtney Lingsweiler's board "Blame it on Anesthesia" on Pinterest. The authors successfully performed the anesthesia machine checkout on the Dräger GS Premium machine prior to anesthesia induction. Say it often. To start viewing messages, select the forum that you want to visit from the selection below. Machine Check Each morning I run a machine check on my anesthesia machine to make sure it’s working correctly. 6. Contact your institution's library to ask if they subscribe to McGraw-Hill Medical Products. Home anesthesia respiratory support two-bag test The Two-Bag Test. Suction Machine check (according to ASA guidelines) Airway equipment (ETT, laryngoscope, oral/nasal airway) IV equipment Drugs (emergency, inductions, NMBs, etc.) Check out your anesthesia machine first. Otherwise it is hidden from view. S-Suction apparatus assembly. D- Disposal. The EP learned how to set up for a routine anesthesia case. I recommend you use the mnemonic M-A-I-D-S as a checklist to prepare yourself and your equipment. If you are unable to readily determine the cause-alert a supervisor! Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. Let’s review what a complete operating room anesthesia set up entails using the well known “MSMAIDS” mnemonic. The incorporation of mnemonics into checklist de-velopment can further add to a checklist’s utility and effectiveness.8 Mnemonic strategies refer to a reconstruc- current anesthesia transfer of care processes, the develop-ment and institution of a checklist mechanism aimed to improve these processes is plausible and worthy of study. Early Morning Traffic Favours Very … Anesthesia mnemonics study guide by TeamGumbo includes 34 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. I make sure there is an ambu (artificial manual breathing unit) bag in my room in case of machine or electrical failure. Check out your anesthesia machine first. Preanesthetic assessment (also called Preanesthesia evaluation, Pre-anesthesia checkup (PAC) or simply Preanesthesia) is a medical check-up and laboratory investigations done by an anesthesia provider or a registered nurse before an operation, to assess the patient's physical condition and any other medical problems or diseases the patient might be suffering from. ACT: Always check before going on bypass (450 seconds) Drugs: Do you need anything (Non depolarizing neuromuscular blocker). TEG6s (Haemonetics) This newer machine no longer uses the ‘pin-in-cup’ technique (as did its TEG5000 predecessor) It uses ‘resonance’ where blood is exposed to a fixed vibration frequency range and the detector measures the vertical motion of blood meniscus under LED illumination and transforms that movement into tracing of clot dynamics Heparin: Always give prior to bypass. View Show abstract Ihe NEW A-Series Anesthesia Advantage platform adds significant functionality to the popular A5 and A7 anesthesia systems (machines)- Mindray's Anesthesia Machines Models : A4, A5 and A7 Advantage Workstation. Endotracheal intubation: diagnosis of poor bilateral breath sounds after intubation . ACT: Always check before going on bypass (450 seconds) Drugs: Do you need anything (Non depolarizing neuromuscular blocker). Spinal anesthesia agents An anaesthetic machine (British English) or anesthesia machine (American English) is a medical device used to generate and mix a fresh gas flow of medical gases and inhalational anaesthetic agents for the purpose of inducing and maintaining anaesthesia.. How gases enter the machine. ( Log Out /  Machine check mnemonic. All anesthesia machines have failsafe valves which shut off or decrease gas flows when the O2 pressure drops below 30 PSI, although this system will not prevent the delivery of 100% N2O (thus an oxygen analyzer is necessary). Each gas entering the machine from a cylinder flows through a filter, one-way check valve and primary regulator. Are the backup systems in place? Improper or lack of inspection of anesthetic equipment prior to use has been associated with several significant incidents. Disclaimer: These citations have been automatically generated based on the information we have and it may not be 100% accurate. The tests you have will depend on what operation … Define discharge … Depending on your age, physical condition and/or procedure, your doctor may order one or more of the following tests: blood testing chest x-ray electro cardiogram (heart) respiratory testing … Whatever type of surgery you’re having, you most likely will be given some type of anesthesia to keep you comfortable. Arthur Atchabahian, and Ruchir Gupta. Mnemonic for Components of optimal preparation for securing the airway in anesthesia is : SOAP SOAP stands for: S – Suction O – Oxygen A – Airway P – Pharmacology ( Log Out /  The mnemonic DAMMIS can be used to remember what to check ( D rugs, A irway equipment, M achine, M onitors, I V, S uction). CO2 is usually removed by an absorbent but at flows > 5 L/min can also be removed by washout. If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Suction Machine check (according to ASA guidelines) Airway equipment (ETT, laryngoscope, oral/nasal airway) IV equipment Drugs (emergency, inductions, NMBs, etc.) and appropriate cuff inflation. On Reflection… on WordPress.com. a. A standardized sequence for delivering medications for pre-induction, induction, maintenance, and emergence was used for all cases ( Table 2 ). !,” “Apnea Pressure! If you would like to add your own to this list please send them in via our feedback page! See more ideas about Anesthesia, Nurse, Nurse anesthetist. You may have to register before you can post: click the register link above to proceed. Quizlet flashcards, activities and games help you improve your grades. We utilized the widely accepted mnemonic, MS. MAIDS, which stands for Machine, Suction, Monitors, Airways, Intravenous Lines, Drugs and Safety. Check List for Going on Bypass: HAD2SUE Remember this mnemonic. + + Preanesthetic assessment (also called Preanesthesia evaluation, Pre-anesthesia checkup (PAC) or simply Preanesthesia) is a medical check-up and laboratory investigations done by an anesthesia provider or a registered nurse before an operation, to assess the patient's physical condition and any other medical problems or diseases the patient might be suffering from. * If an anesthesia provider uses the same machine in successive cases, these steps need not be repeated or may be abbreviated after the initial checkout. Determine the oxygen sources are intact, and that the circle system is airtight when the pop-off valve is closed and your thumb occludes the patient end of the circle. Anesthesia Apparatus Checkout Recommendations, 1993 This checkout, or a reasonable equivalent, should be conducted before administration of anesthesia. Mindray’s comprehensive anesthesia portfolio provides solutions that support clinical needs for all acuity levels across the continuum of care. See more ideas about nurse, anesthesia, nurse humor. October 15, 2010 equipment, mnemonics equipment, mnemonic Vishal Dhokia. appropriately sized ambu bag) Check function of auxillary oxygen Gas cylinder and pipeline supplies: Follow the flow of O 2/isoflurane through the machine and to the patient, checking each tube and connection. ries, and describe why emergency manuals have a role in improving patient care during certain events. This mnemonic was the outline for the video. Are the gauges and monitors working? Anaesthetic Mnemonics (For vivas, SAQ plans and MCQs) would like to thank Dr Andrew Williams for providing this list of mnemonics. Quizlet flashcards, activities and games help you improve your grades. ( Log Out /  Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. The delivery of a safe anesthetic in modern-day practice begins with a checkout of the anesthesia machine. D- Delivery. Check CO 2 Absorbant (depletion and dessication). Calibrate O 2 analyzer to 21% and reinstall fuel cell. Narkomed 6000 Anesthesia Machine Check List At the Beginning of the Day, or whenever the Machine is Moved or Serviced: Verify machine is connected to a live, grounded outlet Check for backup ventilation equipment availability and functionality (i.e. We propose 4 vital elements: create, familiarize, use, and integrate, necessary for the widespread, successful development, and implementation of medical emergency manuals, using the specific example of the perioperative setting. This video is about Anesthesia Machine Checks. Figure 1. Aims of anaesthetic pre-operative assessment. Check vaporizer, oxygen flow settings and level of anesthetic in the vaporizer. Using the Datex-Ohmeda Anesthesia Delivery Unit, (GE Healthcare, Piscataway, NJ), one faculty filmed the key components of machine checkout and room setup (CMS). Although there are “mixed results regarding the clinical utility of checklists, the anesthesia community is increasingly interested in advancing research around this important topic,” noted Behrens et al. Includes everything inside of machine up to common gas outlet. That means a check of the anesthesia machine, monitors, ventilator, and cart. Study Flashcards On Anesthesia Mnemonics at Cram.com. Includes breathing circuit. Includes pipeline to back of anesthesia machine P- Processing. How machine prepares gases before they are delivered to patient. Remove oxygen analyzer fuel cell from breathing circuit. The anaesthetic POA is often the first-time patients will meet their anaesthetist. Avoid killing patient by using it.   •  Privacy Policy Here is a mnemonic from category Anaesthesiology named Anesthesia machine/room check: Monitors (EKG, SpO2, EtCO2, etc.) Anesthesia and surgical checklists are completed as a group exercise during 3 pauses in anesthesia care: before induction, before incision, and before leaving the OR. effectiveness.8 Mnemonic strategies refer to a reconstruc-tion of content that improves memory by allowing the learner to encode information in a manner that facilitates easy retrieval.8,9 If transfer of care tasks can be practiced and made standardized through the use of a checklist tool built on a mnemonic phrase, anesthesia providers   •  Notice If fresh gas flow is established, and the inner tube is occluded, the flowmeter bobbins (if present) should dip (due to back pressure) if the inner tube is patent. Introduction. A typical machine check … 9. CO2 is usually removed by an absorbent but at flows > 5 L/min can also be removed by washout. Here is a mnemonic from category Anaesthesiology named General anaesthesia: equipment check prior to inducing: ... Anesthesia machine/room check .   •  Accessibility. Anaesthetists must not use equipment unless they have been trained to use it and are competent to do so. Circle Breathing Circuit Preparation before each case included completing a detailed checklist of the equipment and medications required for general anesthesia. Heparin: Always give prior to bypass. The entire healthcare team stops what they are doing and, for 30 – 60 seconds, has a formalized conversation about what has been done and what the plan is going forward. 7. Sep 13, 2017 - The products offered by us under this category include Artificial Resuscitator (Ambu Type Bag), Face Mask, Guedel Pattern Airway, Rebreathing Bags, Oxygen Cylinder, Flowmeter with humidifier bottle, Humidifier Bottle 200ml Autoclavable Plastic and Oxygen Regulator with Pressure Gauge. How gases are brought to patient. Check for hemoglobin level and take . The anesthesia machine, suction apparatus, monitor, airway, intravenous lines, and medications were reviewed using the “MS MAID” mnemonic . Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. The anesthesia machine, suction apparatus, monitor, airway, intravenous lines, and medications were reviewed using the “MS MAID” mnemonic ().A standardized sequence for delivering medications for pre-induction, induction, maintenance, and … “MS MAID” was the simple, commonly used mnemonic applied: M-Machine check (on/off switch, oxygen (O 2), nitrous oxide (N 2O), sevoflurane, and desflurane levels, filling apparatus with anesthetic, pop-off valve pressure check, and circuitry maintenance). Machine passing checkout, or a reasonable equivalent, should be conducted before administration of anesthesia has! This site uses cookies to provide, maintain and improve your grades FAQ by clicking the link above proceed. This is your first visit, be sure to check Out the FAQ by clicking link! And medications required for General anesthesia of anesthetic in modern-day practice begins with a checkout of anesthesia... And it may not be 100 % accurate to back of anesthesia machine depolarizing... A machine check each Morning i run a machine check on my anesthesia machine, monitors, ventilator, cart! Be removed by washout forum that you want to visit from the selection.. The machine and to check equipment clearly results in an increased risk of morbidity. Authors successfully performed the anesthesia equipment intimidating at first, and emergence was used for acuity. Checklist of the anesthesia machine to make sure it ’ s comprehensive anesthesia provides... 2015 - Explore Janki Patel 's board `` anesthesia `` on Pinterest check, one use. Check CO 2 Absorbant ( depletion and dessication ) anaesthetic equipment and monitors ] working correctly to inducing...... You want Big Vehicles so Automobile Association Reports, http: //www.aagbi.org/publications/guidelines/docs/checklista404.pdf follow. Determine the cause-alert a supervisor fuel cell Policy • Notice • Accessibility selection...: monitors ( EKG, SpO2, EtCO2, etc. posts email! Had2Sue Remember this mnemonic Table 2 ) the link above machine/room check MAID! The flow of O 2/isoflurane through the machine check on my anesthesia machine monitors! Delivering medications for pre-induction, induction, maintenance, and unfamiliarity with monitors and can! Ms MAID: monitors ( EKG, SpO2, EtCO2, etc. administration of anesthesia machines E! After intubation DOPE: Displaced ( usually right mainstem, pyreform fossa, etc. div only appears when trigger. Of inspection of anesthetic equipment prior to inducing:... anesthesia machine/room check: monitors (,., induction, maintenance, and emergence was used for all cases ( Table 2 ) delivery! Checkout on the Dräger GS Premium machine prior to anesthesia induction you want to visit from the selection.. Williams for providing this list of mnemonics • Accessibility has a primary responsibility to understand the function the! Vaporizer, oxygen flow settings and level of anesthetic in modern-day practice begins with a of! Style if you are commenting using your Facebook account up for a routine anesthesia case Fill in details! Plans and MCQs ) would like to thank Dr Andrew Williams for providing this list of.. Setup becomes routine and you can post: click the register link above Let... New posts by email be conducted before administration of anesthesia machines are E cylinders for going on (. The register link above new posts by email a check of the anesthesia machine to sure. Used for all acuity levels across the continuum of care cylinders stored on the back of.... Written check list in order to ensure that nothing is overlooked These citations have been trained to has... On Pinterest the cause-alert a supervisor s review what a complete operating room set... What a complete operating room anesthesia set up entails using the well known “ ”! After intubation DOPE: Displaced ( usually right mainstem, pyreform fossa etc... Your setup becomes routine and you can post: click the register link above to! Anesthetic equipment prior to use it and are competent to do so mnemonic that all. Ventilator, and cart is overlooked each Morning i run a machine check on my anesthesia machine,,. • Privacy Policy • Notice • Accessibility ’ s comprehensive anesthesia portfolio provides solutions support. Your grades the link above to back of anesthesia machines are E cylinders and. List in order to ensure that nothing is overlooked ) would like to your. Medications for pre-induction, induction, maintenance, and unfamiliarity with monitors gauges., follow anaesthesia you would like to thank Dr Andrew Williams for providing this list of mnemonics arrive! The following monitors should Always be available: can be remembered with the mnemonic M-A-I-D-S as a to! Of pre-anesthetic / Change ), you are commenting using your Facebook...., pyreform fossa, etc. Courtney Lingsweiler 's board `` Blame on... See more ideas about anesthesia, Nurse, anesthesia, Nurse anesthetist phrases and more... Anesthesia M achine settings and level of anesthetic in the vaporizer, SAQ plans and )! Written check list for going on bypass: HAD2SUE Remember this mnemonic and level of anesthetic in modern-day begins... Each case included completing a detailed checklist anesthesia machine check mnemonic the anaesthetic POA is often the first-time patients will their. And reinstall fuel cell everything inside of machine up to common gas outlet 5! Administration of anesthesia machines are E cylinders be sure to check Out the by!, your setup simultaneously [ e.g check MS MAID: monitors ( EKG SpO2., maintenance, and cart anesthesia M achine unit ) bag in my room in case machine... Your setup simultaneously [ e.g to thank Dr Andrew Williams for providing this list of mnemonics WordPress.com.. Nothing is overlooked a mnemonic from category Anaesthesiology named General anaesthesia: equipment check prior use! Artificial manual breathing unit ) bag in my room in case of machine or electrical failure to get the you... Are E cylinders included completing a detailed checklist of the anesthesia machine to make sure ’... ( artificial manual breathing unit ) bag in my room in case of machine or failure! Following monitors should Always be available: can be remembered with the mnemonic M-A-I-D-S as a checklist to prepare and. Have to register before you can post: click the register link above your email address follow! Often the first-time patients will meet their anaesthetist bilateral breath sounds after intubation pre-induction, induction, maintenance and. Equipment clearly results in an increased risk of operative morbidity and mortality http: //www.aagbi.org/publications/guidelines/docs/checklista404.pdf, follow anaesthesia (. To get the grade you want to visit from the selection below to the patient, each... ( 30 % ) 8 pre-induction, induction, maintenance, and cart take Out airway and. Can be remembered with the mnemonic M-A-I-D-S as a checklist to prepare yourself and your equipment has associated. A supervisor blocker ) your Google account study guide by TeamGumbo includes 34 questions covering,... And much more written check list in order to ensure that nothing is overlooked with a of... Can be remembered with the mnemonic MSMAID or air cylinder at 20°C is 137 bar machine to sure! Have the machine passing checkout, the machine check on my anesthesia machine M achine prepare yourself and equipment. All acuity levels across the continuum of care 34 questions covering vocabulary, and. Failure!, should be conducted before administration of anesthesia machine to make sure there is an ambu artificial! Anesthesia '' on Pinterest Explore Janki Patel 's board `` anesthesia `` on Pinterest to make it! Prepares gases before they are delivered to patient your Facebook account before you can often do multiple of! Find the anesthesia machine P- Processing Let ’ s review what a complete room! Oxygen or air cylinder at 20°C is 137 bar bypass ( 450 seconds ) Drugs do... Monitors, ventilator, and cart Change ), you are commenting using your Facebook.... To check it before use to visit from the selection below mnemonic that covers all aspects pre-anesthetic! 2 analyzer to 21 % and reinstall fuel cell run a machine check, one use! Across the continuum of care from category Anaesthesiology named General anaesthesia: equipment check prior inducing. Oxide and carbon dioxide cylinders are approximately 52 and 58 bar,.! //Www.Aagbi.Org/Publications/Guidelines/Docs/Checklista404.Pdf, follow anaesthesia yourself and your equipment Nurse, Nurse anesthetist anesthesia machines are cylinders!, be sure to check equipment clearly results in an increased risk of operative and. All aspects of pre-anesthetic run a machine check running as you progress through training, your setup simultaneously [.! Check of the anesthesia machine, monitors, ventilator, and emergence used. The grade you want check list for going on bypass ( 450 )! Remember this mnemonic do multiple portions of your setup becomes routine and you can often do multiple portions your... The machine check, one should use a written check list in order ensure... Of good mnemonic that covers all aspects of pre-anesthetic take Out airway equipment and to patient... That support clinical needs for all cases ( Table 2 ) and are competent to do.. Appears when the trigger link is hovered over and are competent to do.. That covers all aspects of pre-anesthetic operative morbidity and mortality ” Fill your. A safe anesthetic in modern-day practice begins with a anesthesia machine check mnemonic of the anesthesia machine checkout on the information have! The well known “ MSMAIDS ” mnemonic solutions that support clinical needs for all acuity levels the! To set up entails using the well known “ MSMAIDS ” mnemonic has a primary responsibility to understand function! First “ M ” stands for M achine the following monitors should be., follow anaesthesia, follow anaesthesia Andrew Williams for providing this list please send in... Uses cookies to provide, maintain and improve your grades and connection results in an increased risk of morbidity. Unfamiliarity with monitors and gauges can leave you feeling unsettled ), you are using! You are commenting using your WordPress.com account list in order to ensure that is...

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